Who were the real Architects of Indus Valley Civilization? The question needs deep research as the earlier views of Indian Historians are mostly of biased nature. It was the most developed civilisation of the ancient history of the world and that was not because of the Aryans but of the local population. Aryans imigration took place around 2500 BC while the civilisation was of around 7000 BC old.
Harappan culture had deep impact over religions that came in its contact. The original inhabitants were of monotheistic belief with immaterial God. Idol worshiping was not proved beyond doubt. Their belief was realistic corresponding to the modern monotheistic or atheistic stream. It was widely suggested that the Harappan people worshipped a Mother goddess symbolizing fertility. Proof of Idol worshipping was the discovery of a group of religiously biased Historians. A few Indus valley seals displayed Swastika sign which were there in many religions, especially in Indian religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism that took some heritage from the glorious culture of the valley.
The Aryans on the contrary were a very confused nomads that took shelter in the valley. They were of completely different views and beliefs. Their beliefs were polytheistic with Idols of almost every natural thing in humanoid form. Remnants of some Idols like Pashupati, Brahma, Indra, etc. found in the valley date back to the period of arrivals of this Euro-Asian nomads. Those people had a little understanding of logical interpretational knowledge of nature and its extreme conditions. And whatever came beyond their thought capacity became their new Gods which took humanoid shapes later on. By the end of the Harappa and Mohenjo-daro period, they had invented Gods for almost everything like Goddess of Knowledge, Goddess of Wealth, Goddess of Kala, God of Ghosts, God of Rains, God of Universe, God of Air, The God Sun, The God of Fire, The God of Water, The Goddess Earth, etc. and countless other Gods that resembled modern day big Govt. Offices with a separate department for each separate work. Likewise, every God had a separate department or area of operation to confuse the masses.
The Indus valley civilization was a city civilization while the Aryan civilization was a village civilization. The people of both civilizations were, of course, agriculturists, but the Indus valley people were certainly more industrialised and commercialised than the Aryans and carried on brisk trade within the sub-continent as well as with distant countries of the West. And, that was the primary cause of their thriving economy resulting in city-culture. Iron was not known to the Indus valley people while the Aryans used it. The Indus valley made use of only copper and probably bronze as well. That is why their culture belonged to what is called Chalcolithic age (when man used both copper and stone implements) while the Iron age started with the Vedic period. While horse was well known to the Aryans and they used it in their chariots, it was unknown to the Indus valley people and became known to them only when they came in contact with the Aryans. Nandin-bull (humped bull) was probably a sacred animal to the Indus valley people while cow occupied a sacred place among the Aryans. While the gods of the Aryans were mostly males and goddesses occupied only a subordinate position, and that too much later, the Indus valley people certainly provided a high place to the worship of Mother Goddess.
The Indus valley people buried their dead while neither the Aryans nor Dravidians had such practices. Fish was included in the diet of the Indus valley people while it was discarded by the Aryans. The script of the Indus valley people was mainly phonetic while the Aryans succeeded in developing Sanskrit literature and its script as well. Performance of Yajnas was a necessary part of the religious life of the Aryans while we find no such religious rituals among the Indus valley people. Probably, idol-worship in some rudimentary form was accepted by the Indus valley people but it was absolutely absent among the Vedic Aryans.
Hereditary caste-system and Varna Asram Dharma constituted an essential part of the social system of the later Aryans while these were non¬-existent among the Indus valley people. It has been suggested by many scholars that the nature of the state among the Indus valley people was theocratic while the state of the Aryans was purely secular, though, of course, the rulers observed Rajya Dharma. The Indus valley people were not artistic as a whole yet they succeeded in producing fine pottery and a few pieces of sculpture whereas the Aryans though they possessed an artistic temperament failed to leave any signs of such craftsmanship.
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